Author Topic: No__86___Repeats in music scores  (Read 252 times)

Peter Anderson

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No__86___Repeats in music scores
« on: March 25, 2018, 03:06:07 PM »
Because I referred to the importance of understanding Repeats toward the end of Peters Pearls #78, in this particular Pearl, we take a dedicated look at Repeat markers in music, and try to fully appreciate how to handle them.

This is a stand alone post and gives a fuller discussion of this subject, than was found at the end of #78.

You will find in the subsequent Replies, forgive the much intended pun, but some of this will be a Repeat of what we started in #78.    Extra material will be inserted, so covering the entire area of Repeats in Music Scores.

Peter

Peter Anderson

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Re: No__86___Repeats in music scores
« Reply #1 on: March 27, 2018, 05:13:19 PM »
Music Scores for your playing are very much like road maps for your driving.

To be frank, some road maps are pretty poor, while others are designed for the motorist and therefore are very clear.

You need to know and understand the meaning of all the "road signs" in our music, and one area which we often struggle over is the different types of Repeats.

The handling of all these signs and symbols should be second nature to us, and we should not have to stop and work out what to do when we come across any of them.

You may wish to refresh your memory about Ornaments, and you can do that by opening Peters Pearls # 59    Ornaments in Music,  in a new window, by clicking this link:

http://www.ar-group.org/smforum/index.php?topic=2387.0

(Did we really start that over 21/2 years ago?)

In the next posting here, we get stuck into this area of Repeats in Music.

Peter


Peter Anderson

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Re: No__86___Repeats in music scores
« Reply #2 on: March 31, 2018, 09:52:05 PM »
The most common Repeat that you will find in music is probably the double bar line with two dots, and it looks like this:



When you come across something like this you simply play the written notes   

B,  A,  G,  F,  E,  D  &  C

and then go back to the first repeat sign,  (i.e the one with the two dots facing away from you)  and repeat all of these notes in the same order, and finish.

You may sometime see this without the first or start repeat.    So if you come across a piece a music that just has the second, or final repeat sign,  (i.e. the one with the dots facing you)  then you always go back to the very start of the piece of music.

In the following Replies we explore the variations you may find with these symbols and how we interpret them, as we play the music.

Peter

Peter Anderson

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Re: No__86___Repeats in music scores
« Reply #3 on: April 06, 2018, 03:55:21 PM »
First and Second Time Endings

First and second time endings indicate different music to be played the first or second time.

Here is an example:



Obviously all the red lines, numbers and arrows, I am using, are there, simply to explain how to navigate through the music notation and symbols.

After you have started to play the piece, from the beginning, 1 when you arrive at the End Repeat sign, at the end of the  1 time bracket, you return to the very beginning and play the piece through again, playing from the bar marked  2.

But this second time, though, you do not play the bars under the  1 time bracket, but jump to the bar, marked  3  under the  2 time bracket, and in this instance stop at the end of the 2 bars, because this is the end of the piece of the music.


Sometimes these Repeat Brackets can have other higher numbers.

Imagine a song with 5 verses and a final chorus or closing section to end with. 
 
You may well have the first bracket showing instead of the single  1.  1,2,3,4 & 5, with the word  chorus written in the final Repeat Bracket.     If it is just a closing phrase, it may have no words, or sometimes a helpful comment, like to end.

You may also find something like  1,3  written in the first time bar, with  2,4  written in the second time bar.

So appreciating the sequence of these repeats is very important, and you need to get them clear in your mind before you tackle the piece of music.

Again multiple Repeats like this, may have a Start Repeat sign and that is the point to which you should always return, to repeat the verses, but if not, you must always go back to the very beginning of the piece.

Peter

Peter Anderson

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Re: No__86___Repeats in music scores
« Reply #4 on: April 20, 2018, 06:05:44 PM »
D.C. al fine

This stands for    Da Capo al fine.     Da Capo literally means “from the head”.
It means to start back at the very beginning of the piece of music.   It is another way of saying, “Let’s do that again!”

D.S. can stand alone, but it generally has the added instruction, of al fine or al coda.    Again both of these words instruct the organist where they should go, after the Repeat.

Al fine means after repeating back from the start, continue to play until the Fine mark.

Traditionally musicians skip over any first ending, after they go back for a D.C. repeat,    (or a D.S. – that we look at, in a later Reply).

Look at this example:





Remember, all the red markings I have added, are there, simply to explain how the music notation and symbols are to be interpreted.



So let’s explain these red numbered arrows:



1   Play through to the first ending
2   Repeat back to the very beginning of the piece







3   Play again from the start, but Jump to the second time bar, as shown
4   Play to the last written bar or measure





...and working through the rest of the numbers:

5   Return to the start of the piece – N.B. D.C. to the “head” (i.e. the start)

6   Play the piece again from the start until….

7   When you reach the first time bar, do not play it this time, but jump to the start of the 2nd time bar         and finally

8   Play through to the Fine, skipping any first endings and stopping at the end of the measure with the Fine marking.


Sometimes D.C. will stand alone.   
But on many other occasions it may have D.C.al fine, or D.C.al coda.

D.C.al coda is similar to D.C.al Fine, and we discuss al coda in a later Reply, after we look at D.S. (dal segno) in the next Reply.

Peter

Peter Anderson

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Re: No__86___Repeats in music scores
« Reply #5 on: April 26, 2018, 03:32:03 PM »
D.S. (dal segno) means repeat back to a special sign, as ‘segno’ means sign.   So when you encounter this instruction, it means that you continue to play from the place where the sign is located.
This (segno) sign looks a bit like a dollar sign, or an S with an angled slash through it, as well as a dot either side, and looks something like this.





As in the case of D.C.,   D.S. generally has the added instruction, of al fine or al coda.    Again both of these words instruct the organist as to where they should go after the Repeat.

In the case of the words al coda it means that when you arrive at the little coda sign, which looks something like this.




 you immediately move to the Coda section, which will be labelled accordingly, at the end of the piece, and this is graphically explained in the next Reply.

      If D.S. is used with Fine, it means that you stop playing after repeating the correct bars from the sign and when you arrive at the word Fine, which can be printed either above or below the music score.

Just as for D.C., sometimes D.S. will also stand alone.    On other occasions it may have D.S.al Fine, or D.S.al Coda.




Looking at the red arrows here, we
1   Play through the piece until we reach the instruction D.S.al coda, then
2   Go back and start playing again from the sign.

As mentioned above, this (segno) sign looks a bit like a dollar sign, or an S with an angled slash through it, as well as a dot either side, like this:



In the next Reply, we graphically demonstrate how to complete playing this piece of music.

Peter

Peter Anderson

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Re: No__86___Repeats in music scores
« Reply #6 on: May 01, 2018, 09:03:21 AM »
D.S.al coda continued

We saw in the last Reply how to play the first part of this piece of music, like this:



But now let us proceed to fulfil that last instruction, which has the words al Coda added.

Look at this diagram:



Again following the red arrow directions;

3   Play from the coda sign  up to the instruction to Coda 
4   Jump over to where the word Coda appears
5   Play from that point to the end of the piece.

In the following Replies we consider 3 other types of Repeat in music scores, but they are only used for drums, guitars and sometimes piano.

Peter

Peter Anderson

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Re: No__86___Repeats in music scores
« Reply #7 on: May 08, 2018, 03:58:12 PM »
The Repeated Beat symbol is used in music scores for rhythm parts for Drums and Guitars and sometimes for piano.

This is what it looks like:




And this is how you interpret it:



In the next Reply we reveal the Repeated Measure

Peter

Peter Anderson

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Re: No__86___Repeats in music scores
« Reply #8 on: May 14, 2018, 11:42:26 AM »
The Repeated Measure is used only for Drums, Piano or Guitar.
This is what it looks like:



And this is how you interpret it:


In the final Reply we reveal the Two Measure Repeat

Peter

Peter Anderson

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Re: No__86___Repeats in music scores
« Reply #9 on: May 21, 2018, 02:39:51 PM »
The Two Measure Repeat is used only for Drums, Piano or Guitar.

This is what it looks like:



And this is how you interpret it:


Four measure repeats are also possible but they use four slashes and the number 4, not 2.
To repeat more than 4 measures, use the simple repeat signs.

This wraps up this Pearl about Repeats in music scores.

Peter